NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology


NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

NCERT Solutions for Class 12Biology

Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology includes all the questions provided in NCERT Books for 12th Class Biology Subject. Here all questions are solved with detailed explanation and available for free to check.

Book: National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
Class: 12th Class
Subject: Biology
Medium: English

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (Chapter-Wise)

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology are given below for all chapter. Select chapter number to view NCERT Solution chapter wise.

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

Chapter Details & Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

The Reproduction in Organisms chapter involves the procreation process of different organisms. Reproduction is a biological process that results in organisms giving birth to their young ones. This process can be categorized into two types. The first one is asexual reproduction in which the offspring is procreated only by a single parent or without the gamete formation. The second one is sexual reproduction in which two parents of opposite sex procreate through the fusion of female and male gametes. The chapter will explain these concepts in detail through examples and diagrams.

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

This chapter focuses on the sexual reproduction in flowering plants along with the structure, morphology, and processes. It further elaborates on concepts like pre-fertilization: Structure and Events, Port fertilization: Structure and Events, Double fertilization, Polyembryony, and Apomixis.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

In the Human Reproduction chapter, the reproductive events in humans are discussed. This includes gametogenesis (the formation of gametes). Humans become sexually mature after reaching puberty. The reproductive events related to males and females are different. You will be able to examine these differences in this chapter. The sub-topics discussed in this chapter include the female reproductive system, the male reproductive system, fertilization and implantation, menstrual cycle, gametogenesis, embryonic development and pregnancy, lactation, and parturition.

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

The previous chapters covered the human reproductive system as well as its functions. In this chapter, a closely related topic is discussed - Reproductive Health. Reproductive health refers to the healthy reproductive organs and their normal functions. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines reproductive health as the total well-being in every aspect of reproduction which includes physical, behavioural, social, and emotional. This chapter will cover subtopics like Reproductive Health - Problems and Strategies, Birth Control, Population Explosion, Medical Termination of Pregnancy, Infertility, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, etc.

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Genetics is one of the many branches of Biology. It deals with inheritance and the variance of characters in offspring from their parents. The inheritance process involves the characters passed on from the parents to their progeny. In this chapter, concepts like Mendel’s different Laws of Inheritance, Sex Determination, Inheritance of One Gene or Two Genes, Genetic Disorders, and Mutation are discussed in detail.

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

The previous chapters have covered the inheritance patterns as well as the genetic basis of these patterns. During the time of Mendel, the factors that regulated the inheritance pattern were unclear. However, over the next century, the investigation of the nature of putative genetic material saw great strides. It led to the realisation that Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the genetic material for most organisms. Class XI syllabus covered that nucleic acids were polymers of nucleotides. This chapter will cover concepts like the DNA, RNA World, Search for Genetic Materia, Genetic Code, Transcription, Replication, Translation, Human Genome Project, DNA Fingerprinting, and Regulation of Gene Expression.

Chapter 7: Evolution

Evolutionary Biology is the field that studies the history of life on Earth. The Evolution Chapter covers subtopics like Origin of Life, Evolution - A Theory, Evidence for Evolution, Adaptive Radiation, Mechanisms of Evolution, Biological Evolution, Hardy Weinberg principle, Origin and Evolution of Man, etc.

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases

Health can be affected by:
Genetic Disorders - Conditions with which a child is born or defects or deficiencies they inherit from their parents.
Lifestyle - Habits that we have, water and food that we consume, exercise and rest that we take.
This chapter will explore topics like Common Diseases in Humans, Drugs, Cancer, AIDS, Alcohol Abuse, and Immunity.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Due to population growth, there is an increased need for enhancing the processes of food production. Biological principles that are applied to plant breeding and animal husbandry play an important role in improving the food production process. There are several techniques like tissue culture techniques and embryo transfer technology that can enhance this process even more. The Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production chapter will cover concepts including Tissue Culture, Animal Husbandry, Single Cell Proteins, and Plant Breeding.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Apart from macroscopic animals and plants, biological systems have another major component known as microbes. In previous classes, students learned about living organisms and their diversity. Microbes are a diverse group that include bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and microscopic plant and animal viruses. Microbes like many fungi and bacteria can grow on nutritive media and form colonies that are visible to the naked eye. These cultures are very useful while studying microorganisms. In this chapter, topics like Microbes in Industrial Products, Microbes in Household Products, Microbes in Biogas Production, Microbes in Sewage Treatment, Microbes as Biofertilizers, and Microbes Biocontrol Agents are explained thoroughly.

Chapter 11: Biotechnology Principles and Processes

Biotechnology is a field that deals with the process of using enzymes from organisms or live organisms for producing processes and products that are useful to humans. According to the definition provided by the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB), biotechnology encompasses traditional views as well as modern molecular biotechnology. It is the integration of organisms, cells, and molecular analogues and natural science for services and products. This chapter will cover concepts like Principles of Biotechnology, Recombinant DNA Technology tools and processes, etc.

Chapter 12: Biotechnology: and Its Application

In the previous chapters, there were concepts covering the industrial-scale production of biologicals and biopharmaceuticals using genetically modified animals, plants, fungi, and microbes. This chapter covers the applications of biotechnology, including diagnostics, therapeutics, genetically modified crops used for agriculture, waste treatment, energy production, bioremediation, and processed food. It also includes concepts like Biotechnical Applications in Medicine and Agriculture, Transgenic Animals, Ethical Issues, etc.

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

The previous chapters have covered that Ecology involves studying how organisms interact with one another, other organisms, and the physical environment. This chapter involves discussions on biological organisation’s four levels - organisms, populations, biomes, and communities. The Ecology at the population and organismic levels are explained in detail. It also includes concepts like Organisms and their Environment and Populations.

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

An Ecosystem can be considered as nature's functional unit where organisms live and interact with each other as well as the surrounding physical environment. The Ecosystem chapter will begin with discussing the ecosystem structure. This will help in understanding the input, transfer of energy, and output. Next comes the relationships that are created because of the energy flows in the system and the inter-relationship, including webs, chains, and cycles. The chapter covers subtopics like Structure and Function of Ecosystem, Decomposition, productivity, Energy Flow, Ecological Succession, Ecological Pyramids, Ecosystem Services, and Nutrient Cycling.

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation

The Biodiversity and Conservation chapter covers topics like Species diversity, Genetic diversity, Ecological Diversity, Patterns of Diversity, Loss of Biodiversity, Different types of Species, Biodiversity Conservation, etc. The conservation of Biodiversity might be in situ or ex-situ. In the case of situ conservation, the species that are endangered receive protection in their natural habitat in order to ensure the protection of the entire ecosystem. In ex-situ conservation, the threatened species are protected in botanical gardens and zoological parks through cryopreservation of gametes, tissue culture propagation, and in vitro fertilization.

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

Over the last hundred years, the size of the human population has increased exponentially. This has put pressure on natural resources. With the increased demand for water, food, home, roads, electricity, automobiles, and other commodities, there have been some undesirable changes. One such change is Pollution. Pollution is a negative change in the physical, biological, or chemical characteristics of air, water, soil, or land. The agents causing this undesirable change are known as pollutants. This chapter will cover subtopics like Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Radioactive Wastes, Solid Wastes, Greenhouse Effect, Global Warming, Agrochemicals and their effects, Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere, Deforestations, and Degradation caused by Improper Utilization and Maintenance of Resources.

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